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Wednesday, 4 November 2015

Force, Pressure and Friction

Force, Pressure and Friction 

Force Pushes and pulls are forces. 
Thus when a force is applied to an object, it may have the following effects. 
(i) Start moving an object or stop a moving object 
(ii) Speed up or slow down a moving object 
(iii) Change the direction of motion of a moving object 
(iv) Change the shape of an object Force is that which changes or tends to change the state of rest or of uniform motion of a body in a straight line, or changes the shape of a body. The SI unit of force is the Newton (N).

 Contact and non-contact forces Forces which act only when there is physical contact between two interacting objects are known as contact forces. 

Forces which can act without physical contact between objects, i.e. those that can act from a distance, are called non-contact forces or field forces. 

Types of forces 
1. Muscular force This is the force we can exert with our bodies by using our muscles, e.g. pull, push, kick etc. These are contact forces 

2. Magnetic force Magnets exert forces of attraction or repulsion on other magnets. An important feature of magnetic force is that it can act from a distance, and is therefore of a non-contact force. 

3. Electrostatic force The comb acquires an exert a force called electrostatic force. Electrostatic force can also act from a distance and is therefore a non-contact force. A body with electrostatic charge can either attract or repel another charged body. Electrostatic force is used to separate solid pollutant particles from smoke given out from factories. 

4. Gravitational force All objects in the universe exert a force on all other objects. This is called gravitational force. The gravitational force exerted by the Earth on all the bodies on its surface is called gravity. 

5. Frictional force The fact that the rolling ball comes to rest after some time shows that there must be a force acting on it which tends to slow it down. This force seems to be more on rough surfaces than on smooth surfaces. The force acting against the relative motion of surfaces in contact is called frictional force or friction. 
Static friction The block remains at rest because a force of friction, equal but opposite to the applied pull, comes into action between the surfaces. Increase the force a little. The block des not move. This means that the force of friction has increased to balance the pulling force on the block. If the pulling force P is increased further, at a certain stage the block begins the move on the table. At this point the friction developed has reached the maximum value F for the two surfaces. This is called static friction. Kinetic or sliding friction Continue pulling the block with the spring balance, so that it slides at a steady speed. The reading on the spring balance is also steady and is slightly less than the static friction. This is a measure of the kinetic or sliding friction between the two surfaces. Kinetic or sliding friction is less than static friction Rolling friction Repeat the above procedure using an identical wooden block provided with wheels on either side. The reading on the spring balance when the block moves with a steady speed is much less than the sliding friction measured above. Rolling friction is less than sliding friction.

 Advantages of friction 
Friction plays an important role in our daily life. 
1) Without friction we would slip and fall every time we attempt to walk or run. There is very little friction on a wet polished floor. That is why it is easy to slip on such a floor. 
2) Friction causes nails and screws to hold on to walls. 
3) It would not be possible to light a matchstick without friction between its head and the side of the matchbox. 
4) Cars and buses are able to run on roads because of friction between the tyres and the road. 
5) Without friction writing on paper would be impossible as the tip of the pen will slip on paper. 
6) It is because of friction between the brake ‘shoes’ and wheels that bicycles and automobiles stop when brakes are applied. 

Disadvantages of friction Friction is a nuisance in some circumstances. 1) The heat produced in the moving parts of machinery due to friction results in wear and tear of the parts. 
2) Forest fires are caused due to friction between branches of threes rubbing against each other. 
3) Tyres of vehicles and soles of footwear wear out because of friction. 4) Energy is wasted in overcoming the force of friction.

 Minimizing friction 
1) By using a suitable lubricant, like oil (for light machinery) or grease (for heavy machinery). This helps because fluid friction is less than solid friction 
2) By using wheels and ball bearings. Use of wheels between surface moving over each other reduces friction. Ball bearings have small balls of steel between steel surfaces. Because of the balls the steel surfaces can easily moves over each other. 
3) By making the rubbing surfaces smooth by polishing them. 
4) Friction due to air (air resistance) or water is reduced by using streamlined shapes in aeroplanes or ships. 

A streamlined shape is narrow in front and broader at the back. Birds and aquatic animals have streamlined shapes which held them in flying or swimming. 

Increasing friction 
1) By making the moving surfaces rough, e.g. tyres have designs and patterns with grooves on the surface to increase resistance with the road. This prevents slipping of the tyres on a wet road. 
2) Sand and gravel is strewn on slippery ground during the rainy season to increase friction. It is them easier to walk on the ground. 
3) To increase friction, spikes are provided in the soles of shoes used by players and athletes. Pressure Pressure is used to find the effect force acting on a surface has. 

Pressure is defined as force per unit area.  If the force increases the pressure increases. If the area over which the force acts decreases, the pressure increases Unit of pressure The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa). It is the pressure exerted by a force of 1 N acting over an area of 1 m 2 . Thus 1Pa = 1N/m2

 Everyday examples 

 When you cut an apple with a knife, the shaper the knife, the smaller is the area of contact of the knife with the apple. Thus a sharper knife exerts a greater pressure making it easier to cut the apple.

It is easier to pierce a piece of cardboard with a pin if the pin has a sharp point, as the area of contact is then smaller. 

 School bags and shopping bags have broad belts or straps as handles. Narrow string-like handles cause severe pain in the hand because the weight of the bag acts on a small area and so the pressure is considerably higher. 

 Porters wear turbans when they have to carry heavy loads on their heads, to increase the area of contact. This reduces the pressure on the head. 

 Lorries and trucks carrying heavy loads have 8 tyres instead of four, and the tyres are broader. This increases the area of contact with the ground, this reducing the pressure exerted on the ground. 

 War tanks move on caterpillar tracks which are broad and chain-like and cover the wheel. This causes large increase in the area of contact with the ground. The pressure on the round reduces so much that tanks can even move on soft wet ground without sinking. 

Atmospheric Pressure The Earth is surrounded by air and this covering of air is known as the atmosphere. The atmospheric air exists to height of about 1000 km. But beyond 100 km the air is very thin. The force exerted by the atmosphere on unit area is called atmospheric pressure. Liquid Pressure 
a) Water exerts pressure downwards 
b) Water exerts pressure in the upward direction 
c) Water exerts pressure in all directions on the sides. This is called lateral pressure. 
d) Liquid pressure increases with depth. 
Pressure at the bottom of the ocean is very high. Deep sea divers wear steel diving suits to prevent their bodies from begin crushed by the tremendous pressure of water exerted on all sides. Submarines are built of hard thick sheets of metal to withstand the high pressure under water. Fro the same reason dams are broader at the base than at the top.

 Measuring liquid pressure – the manometer An instrument called a monometer is used to measure liquid pressure. 
 A liquid exerts pressure in all directions (downward, upward and sideways). 
 The pressure is the same in all directions at the same depth. 
 Pressure increases with depth. The pressure exerted by water in the oceans increases with depth. Very deep down the pressure is enough to crush the human body. That is why deep-sea divers wear special suits, which can withstand such high pressures. 
.1. Why are women advised not to wear high 

heeled shoes?

Ans: High heeled shoes do not distribute weight of body over the surface of and therefore women may fall on the ground  due to less grips on ground. This is why women are advised not to wear high heeled shoes.

2. It is more difficult to pull boat on the beach than on the water?

Ans: Liquid and gases exert lesser friction as compared to solid surfaces. Therefore, boat on the beach experience more friction than on the water. Thus, it is more difficult to pull boat on the beach than on the water.

3. How are you able to drink juice using a straw?

Ans: Ans: When we suck air from straw the air pressure in the straw decreases that is enough to pull the juice. Air pressure pull the juice to move up inside the straw into our mouth .

4. Why is the tip of sewing needle sharp?

Ans: The sharp tip of sewing needle sharp distributes force over less are so that more pressure created on the clothes. This makes work with needle easier.

5. Why are powder sprinkled on the carom board before playing?

Ans: Powder sprinkled on the carom board before playing to reduce friction between coins and surface of carom board.

6. Why does a woman apply soap solution on their hand to put on bangles?

Ans: A woman apply soap solution on their hand to reduce friction so that it became easier to put on bangles .

7. Does the shoes having spikes on their sole help in making better grip on ice?

Ans: Yes, spikes increase friction and help  to have better grip on ice.

8. Will a match stick catch fire when it is rubbed against cemented wall?

Ans: Yes. A match stick catches fire when it is rubbed against cemented wall because force of friction raises the temperature of match stick head.

 9. What would happen if there is no friction?

Ans: Friction is the force that opposes the motion of every object. So if there is no friction then, there would be nothing to stop a moving object, and it would continue to move forever 

10. Machine parts are oiled occasionally. Why?

Ans:  Lubricant like oil and grease form layer between the two moving surfaces so that they cannot directly rub each other. This make the movement smoother.

Short answer questions 

1. What is meant by force? 

2. What changes can a force produce to the motion of an object? 

3. What is elastic force? Give two examples. 

4. How is pressure related to the area over which a force acts? 

5. What is the relation between pascal and N/m2 ? 

6. If you wear pointed heels in one leg and slippers on the other leg, which leg exerts greater pressure on the ground? 

7. What is atmospheric pressure? 

8. Explain how it is possible to drink a liquid by using a straw. 

9. Why are dams over rivers made broader at the bottom than at the top? 

10. Differentiate between mass and weight. What are the SI units? 

Long answer questions 

1. Explain contact and non-contact forces. Give two examples for each. 

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of friction? 

3. Illustrate static, kinetic and rolling friction with an example. Which is the highest? 

4. (a) How can friction be reduced? (b) How can it be increased?

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