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Wednesday, 14 October 2015

EVOLUTION notes With HOT Questions

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions

Evolution: Process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations (change in allele frequencies over time) leading to diversity of organisms on earth. It is the genetic change in a population or species over generations( Genes mutate, individuals are selected, and populations evolve). 

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EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions

Evidences of evolution: From comparative anatomy: Comparison of body structures amongst different species comes under comparative anatomy. Certain anatomical similarities among species bear witness to evolutionary history. e.g. the same skeletal elements make up the forelimbs of man, horse, whale and bat, but each of them performing different function. However, structural similarities in all mammals descended from a common ancestory with prototype forelimbs are common suggesting homology. Comparative anatomy confirms that evolution is a remodeling process. Ancestral structures that originally functioned in one capacity become modified as they take on new functions-‗descent with modification’.

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions
Vestigial organs: functionless homologous organs that have no apparent function in certain organism. (supposed to be remnants of organs that had been well developed and functional in their ancestral state but had become modified during evolution) E.g. 1. Vermiform appendix in man,2. Pelvic girdle in python,3. Nictitating membrane,4. Coccyx or tail vertebrae in man.
EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,biology for entrance exam ,
Divergent Evolution: Evolutionary pattern in which two species gradually become increasingly different. This type of evolution often occurs when closely related species diversify to new habitats. On a large scale, divergent evolution is responsible for the creation of the current diversity of life on earth from the first living cells. On a smaller scale, it is responsible for the evolution of humans and apes from a common primate ancestor. Adaptive radiation is one example of divergent evolution. Adaptive radiation: Diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological Group of organisms diversify greatly and take on new ecological roles. (for example, Darwin's finches in the Galapagos Island and Marsupials in Australia). Convergent Evolution :Convergent evolution takes place when species of different ancestry begin to share analogous traits because of a shared environment or other selection pressure. For example, whales and fish have some similar characteristics since both had to evolve methods of moving through the same medium: water. Parallel Evolution :Parallel evolution occurs when two species evolve independently of each other, maintaining the same level of similarity. Parallel evolution usually occurs between unrelated species that do not occupy the same or similar niches in a given habitat.
 Biological Evolution: In the early 1800s French naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck suggested that evolution is a process of adaptation , the refinement of charecteristics that equip organisms to perform successfully in their environment.However, unfortunately we remember Lamarck for his erroneous view of how adaptation evolve (the inheritance of acquired characters). Branching descent and natural selection are the two key concepts of Darwinian Theory of evolution. According to him all the species inhabiting earth today descended from ancestral species (descent with modification)and natural selection is the mechanism for such descent with modification. Natural Selection states that a population of organisms can change over the generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals, resulting in a change in the populations genetic composition over time.
Stabilizing selection favors the norm, the common, average traits in a population .In nature, natural selection is most commonly stabilizing. The average members of the population, with intermediate body sizes, have higher fitness than the extremes. Stabilizing selection culls extreme variants from the populations. Directional selection shifts the overall makeup of the population by favoring variants of one extreme within a population. Natural selection may be directional: it may favor, for example, smaller individuals and will, if the character is inherited, produce a decrease in average body size. Directional selection could, of course, also produce an evolutionary increase in body size if larger individuals had higher fitness. Disruptive selection, like directional selection, favors the variants of opposite extremes over intermediate individuals. Disruptive selection differs in that sudden changes in the environment creates a sudden force favoring that In nature, sexual dimorphism is probably a common example. Founder Effect: A cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population. When few individuals colonize a new habitat, genetic drift will more than likely occur. The founder population is small and again the alleles present in this small population will not be representative of the original population. Saltation (from Latin, saltus, "leap") is a sudden change from one generation to the next, that is large, or very large, in comparison with the usual variation of an organism. The term is used for occasionally hypothesized, nongradual changes (especially single-step speciation) that are atypical of, or violate, standard concepts involved in neo-Darwinian evolution.
 Natural Selection: states that a population of organisms can change over the generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals,resulting in a change in the populations genetic composition over time. 
Artificial selection: Process by which humans breed animals and cultivate crops to ensure that future generations have specific desirable characteristics.(In artificial selection, breeders select the most desirable variants in a plant or animal population and selectively breed them with other desirable individuals). 
Big bang theory: States that the universe began in a state of compression to infinite density, and that in one instant all matter and energy began expanding and have continued expanding ever since. 
Genetic drift: Changes in the frequencies of alleles in a population that occur by chance, rather than because of natural selection. Gene flow: movement of genes into or through a population by interbreeding or by migration.
 Gene frequency: The frequency in the population of a particular gene relative to other genes at its locus.Expressed as a proportion (between 0 and 1) or percentage (between 0 and 100 percent).
Gene pool: All the genes in a population at a particular time.
EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,hardy wein berg principle,

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,hardy wein berg principle,

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,hardy wein berg principle,
Organic Evolution Study Questions 
1. Biological evolution is the cumulative changes that occur in a ____________________ over time.
 2. The principle source of change (genetic variation) is due to this type of chromosomal event. _____________________ 
3. Charles Darwin published his landmark book entitled ________________________________________ in 1859. 
4. In his book, Darwin states that the origin of all life forms is due to random ._______________ 
5. Darwin premise that all humans, animals, and bacteria share a common distant ancestor is explained with the concept of __________________ with ._________________________ 
6. Similarities of the structures of between dissimilar species (ex: arm bones) are called ________________ structures. 
7. Darwinian Theory tells us that _________________ + ________________ = new species 
8. Neo-Darwinian Theory tells us that beneficial genetic mutations concentrated in a population over time can result in the formation of new ____________________. 

9. List three characteristics that always provide a selective advantage.
Short Answer Questions
 1. Define evolution. 
2. Explain the origin of the earth and atmosphere.
 3 . Who conducted simulation experiments? What is the significance of this experiment? Explain the simulation experiment conducted to explain the origin of complex organic molecules from simple molecules.
Long Answer Questions 
1. What are homologous organs? What is homology? What do the homologous organs explain as an evidence of organic evolution? 
2. What are analogous organs? What is analogy?What do analogous organs explain as an evidence of organic evolution? 
3. What are vestigial organs? How do they support the organic evolution? Name any four vestigial organs in human being.
 4. Briefly explain the idea of natural selection taking industrial melanism or antibiotic resistance in bacteria as example. Ans. Prior to industrialization, the number and frequency of white peppered moth far exceeded that of dark coloured peppered moth in Liverpool , England since the white moth got selective advantage over dark variety to avoid predation by concealing in the lichen infested grey tree trunk. However, after the industrialization, due to disappearance of lichen in a polluted ambience the dark peppered moth got selective advantage over white moth to avoid predation in the black tree trunk and hence got reproductive success due to directional selection. A reduction in air pollution due to clean air legislation again lead to reproductive success of the white variety. ( industrial melanism)
 5. What is geological time scale? How do you infer the evidence of evolution from it?

6. Discuss the evidences from morphology and comparative anatomy in support of organic evolution. 
7. Comparative embryology gives no less a significant evidence in support of evolution than any other branch of biology. Substantiate.
8. Fossils are the documentary evidences in support of evolution. Discuss.
 Ans Fossil record provides clear evidence for the evolution of species over time. It also documents the evolution of major new groups of organisms from previously existing organisms.Fossil records allow the biologist to reconstruct the history of life on earth.
 9. Justify the statement" Galapagos islands are the living laboratories of Evolution". Ans The Galapagos island are home to 13 species of finches which evolved on the Galapagos island in isolation from other finches.New species of finches evolved from the single species that originally colonize the island provide unique example of adaptive radiation thus , supporting evolution. 
10. What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Write the Hardy-Weinberg equation.
 11. What is genetic drift? Ans Genetic drift is the effect of chance. Genetic drift causes random changes in allele frequencies over time. Genetic drift can cause small populations to lose genetic variation.It can cause the fixation of harmful, neutral or beneficial alleles. 
12. Define founder effect. Ans Founder effect is a genetic bottle neck that results when a small group of individuals from a larger source population establishes a new population far from the original population. 
13. What is gene flow? 
Ans. Gene flow is nothing but exchanging alleles between populations. Gene flow can introduce new alleles into a population, providing new genetic variation on which evolution can work. Gene flow makes the genetic composition of populations more similar
14.Discuss Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. 
Ans. Natural selection is the effect of advantageous allele. In natural selection(NS) , individuals that possess certain forms of an inherited phenotypic trait tend to survive better and produce more offspring than do individuals that possess other forms of trait. NS is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently favors alleles that improve the reproductive success of the organism in its environment. 
15.Discuss mechanisms of evolution. 
Ans. Genetic variation is the raw material of evolution Individuals within the populations differ in morphological, behavioral and biochemical traits , many of which are under genetic control. Genetic variation provides the raw material on which evolution can work. Evolution can be summarized as a three step process
1) Mutations and genetic rearrangements caused by recombination occur at random .
2) These random events then generate inherited differences in the characteristics of individuals in populations.
3) Finally, mutation , gene flow , genetic drift and natural selection can cause allele frequencies to change over time.
Of the four mechanisms of evolutionary change, mutation, gene flow and genetic drift are influenced by chance events, while, natural selection is a random process.

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