SCC is a place where u can get free study material for academic & competitive exams like CTET,SSC,IIT,NDA,Medical exams etc,

Wednesday, 14 October 2015

EVOLUTION notes With HOT Questions

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions

Evolution: Process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations (change in allele frequencies over time) leading to diversity of organisms on earth. It is the genetic change in a population or species over generations( Genes mutate, individuals are selected, and populations evolve). 

To read this complete topic click here 
EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions

Evidences of evolution: From comparative anatomy: Comparison of body structures amongst different species comes under comparative anatomy. Certain anatomical similarities among species bear witness to evolutionary history. e.g. the same skeletal elements make up the forelimbs of man, horse, whale and bat, but each of them performing different function. However, structural similarities in all mammals descended from a common ancestory with prototype forelimbs are common suggesting homology. Comparative anatomy confirms that evolution is a remodeling process. Ancestral structures that originally functioned in one capacity become modified as they take on new functions-‗descent with modification’.

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions
Vestigial organs: functionless homologous organs that have no apparent function in certain organism. (supposed to be remnants of organs that had been well developed and functional in their ancestral state but had become modified during evolution) E.g. 1. Vermiform appendix in man,2. Pelvic girdle in python,3. Nictitating membrane,4. Coccyx or tail vertebrae in man.
EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,biology for entrance exam ,
Divergent Evolution: Evolutionary pattern in which two species gradually become increasingly different. This type of evolution often occurs when closely related species diversify to new habitats. On a large scale, divergent evolution is responsible for the creation of the current diversity of life on earth from the first living cells. On a smaller scale, it is responsible for the evolution of humans and apes from a common primate ancestor. Adaptive radiation is one example of divergent evolution. Adaptive radiation: Diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological Group of organisms diversify greatly and take on new ecological roles. (for example, Darwin's finches in the Galapagos Island and Marsupials in Australia). Convergent Evolution :Convergent evolution takes place when species of different ancestry begin to share analogous traits because of a shared environment or other selection pressure. For example, whales and fish have some similar characteristics since both had to evolve methods of moving through the same medium: water. Parallel Evolution :Parallel evolution occurs when two species evolve independently of each other, maintaining the same level of similarity. Parallel evolution usually occurs between unrelated species that do not occupy the same or similar niches in a given habitat.
 Biological Evolution: In the early 1800s French naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck suggested that evolution is a process of adaptation , the refinement of charecteristics that equip organisms to perform successfully in their environment.However, unfortunately we remember Lamarck for his erroneous view of how adaptation evolve (the inheritance of acquired characters). Branching descent and natural selection are the two key concepts of Darwinian Theory of evolution. According to him all the species inhabiting earth today descended from ancestral species (descent with modification)and natural selection is the mechanism for such descent with modification. Natural Selection states that a population of organisms can change over the generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals, resulting in a change in the populations genetic composition over time.
Stabilizing selection favors the norm, the common, average traits in a population .In nature, natural selection is most commonly stabilizing. The average members of the population, with intermediate body sizes, have higher fitness than the extremes. Stabilizing selection culls extreme variants from the populations. Directional selection shifts the overall makeup of the population by favoring variants of one extreme within a population. Natural selection may be directional: it may favor, for example, smaller individuals and will, if the character is inherited, produce a decrease in average body size. Directional selection could, of course, also produce an evolutionary increase in body size if larger individuals had higher fitness. Disruptive selection, like directional selection, favors the variants of opposite extremes over intermediate individuals. Disruptive selection differs in that sudden changes in the environment creates a sudden force favoring that In nature, sexual dimorphism is probably a common example. Founder Effect: A cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population. When few individuals colonize a new habitat, genetic drift will more than likely occur. The founder population is small and again the alleles present in this small population will not be representative of the original population. Saltation (from Latin, saltus, "leap") is a sudden change from one generation to the next, that is large, or very large, in comparison with the usual variation of an organism. The term is used for occasionally hypothesized, nongradual changes (especially single-step speciation) that are atypical of, or violate, standard concepts involved in neo-Darwinian evolution.
 Natural Selection: states that a population of organisms can change over the generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals,resulting in a change in the populations genetic composition over time. 
Artificial selection: Process by which humans breed animals and cultivate crops to ensure that future generations have specific desirable characteristics.(In artificial selection, breeders select the most desirable variants in a plant or animal population and selectively breed them with other desirable individuals). 
Big bang theory: States that the universe began in a state of compression to infinite density, and that in one instant all matter and energy began expanding and have continued expanding ever since. 
Genetic drift: Changes in the frequencies of alleles in a population that occur by chance, rather than because of natural selection. Gene flow: movement of genes into or through a population by interbreeding or by migration.
 Gene frequency: The frequency in the population of a particular gene relative to other genes at its locus.Expressed as a proportion (between 0 and 1) or percentage (between 0 and 100 percent).
Gene pool: All the genes in a population at a particular time.
EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,hardy wein berg principle,

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,hardy wein berg principle,

EVOLUTION  notes With HOT Questions,hardy wein berg principle,
Organic Evolution Study Questions 
1. Biological evolution is the cumulative changes that occur in a ____________________ over time.
 2. The principle source of change (genetic variation) is due to this type of chromosomal event. _____________________ 
3. Charles Darwin published his landmark book entitled ________________________________________ in 1859. 
4. In his book, Darwin states that the origin of all life forms is due to random ._______________ 
5. Darwin premise that all humans, animals, and bacteria share a common distant ancestor is explained with the concept of __________________ with ._________________________ 
6. Similarities of the structures of between dissimilar species (ex: arm bones) are called ________________ structures. 
7. Darwinian Theory tells us that _________________ + ________________ = new species 
8. Neo-Darwinian Theory tells us that beneficial genetic mutations concentrated in a population over time can result in the formation of new ____________________. 

9. List three characteristics that always provide a selective advantage.
Short Answer Questions
 1. Define evolution. 
2. Explain the origin of the earth and atmosphere.
 3 . Who conducted simulation experiments? What is the significance of this experiment? Explain the simulation experiment conducted to explain the origin of complex organic molecules from simple molecules.
Long Answer Questions 
1. What are homologous organs? What is homology? What do the homologous organs explain as an evidence of organic evolution? 
2. What are analogous organs? What is analogy?What do analogous organs explain as an evidence of organic evolution? 
3. What are vestigial organs? How do they support the organic evolution? Name any four vestigial organs in human being.
 4. Briefly explain the idea of natural selection taking industrial melanism or antibiotic resistance in bacteria as example. Ans. Prior to industrialization, the number and frequency of white peppered moth far exceeded that of dark coloured peppered moth in Liverpool , England since the white moth got selective advantage over dark variety to avoid predation by concealing in the lichen infested grey tree trunk. However, after the industrialization, due to disappearance of lichen in a polluted ambience the dark peppered moth got selective advantage over white moth to avoid predation in the black tree trunk and hence got reproductive success due to directional selection. A reduction in air pollution due to clean air legislation again lead to reproductive success of the white variety. ( industrial melanism)
 5. What is geological time scale? How do you infer the evidence of evolution from it?

6. Discuss the evidences from morphology and comparative anatomy in support of organic evolution. 
7. Comparative embryology gives no less a significant evidence in support of evolution than any other branch of biology. Substantiate.
8. Fossils are the documentary evidences in support of evolution. Discuss.
 Ans Fossil record provides clear evidence for the evolution of species over time. It also documents the evolution of major new groups of organisms from previously existing organisms.Fossil records allow the biologist to reconstruct the history of life on earth.
 9. Justify the statement" Galapagos islands are the living laboratories of Evolution". Ans The Galapagos island are home to 13 species of finches which evolved on the Galapagos island in isolation from other finches.New species of finches evolved from the single species that originally colonize the island provide unique example of adaptive radiation thus , supporting evolution. 
10. What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Write the Hardy-Weinberg equation.
 11. What is genetic drift? Ans Genetic drift is the effect of chance. Genetic drift causes random changes in allele frequencies over time. Genetic drift can cause small populations to lose genetic variation.It can cause the fixation of harmful, neutral or beneficial alleles. 
12. Define founder effect. Ans Founder effect is a genetic bottle neck that results when a small group of individuals from a larger source population establishes a new population far from the original population. 
13. What is gene flow? 
Ans. Gene flow is nothing but exchanging alleles between populations. Gene flow can introduce new alleles into a population, providing new genetic variation on which evolution can work. Gene flow makes the genetic composition of populations more similar
14.Discuss Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. 
Ans. Natural selection is the effect of advantageous allele. In natural selection(NS) , individuals that possess certain forms of an inherited phenotypic trait tend to survive better and produce more offspring than do individuals that possess other forms of trait. NS is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently favors alleles that improve the reproductive success of the organism in its environment. 
15.Discuss mechanisms of evolution. 
Ans. Genetic variation is the raw material of evolution Individuals within the populations differ in morphological, behavioral and biochemical traits , many of which are under genetic control. Genetic variation provides the raw material on which evolution can work. Evolution can be summarized as a three step process
1) Mutations and genetic rearrangements caused by recombination occur at random .
2) These random events then generate inherited differences in the characteristics of individuals in populations.
3) Finally, mutation , gene flow , genetic drift and natural selection can cause allele frequencies to change over time.
Of the four mechanisms of evolutionary change, mutation, gene flow and genetic drift are influenced by chance events, while, natural selection is a random process.

Read more topics......
vitamins fat-soluble-vitamins water


Share on Google Plus Share on whatsapp


  1. I am impressed by the information that you have on this blog. It shows how well you understand this subject. best study abroad consultancy mumbai

  2. A very awesome blog post. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. aplia answers in chem, phy, finance and accouting

  3. Great article Lot's of information to Read...Great Man Keep Posting and update to People..Thanks hsc new routine 2020

  4. You completed a number of nice points there. I did a search on the issue and found nearly all people will have the same opinion with your blog.

  5. I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work. Free online courses

  6. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing blog that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. top 10 overseas education consultants in delhi

  7. Anyone can teach. We teach each other every day. For example, we give instructions to each other for such things as cooking, putting together furniture, and completing household other tasks. However, teaching someone is different than the process of educating someone. home tuition

  8. A teacher is the main guide in the whole life of a student. He guides them and makes them well disciplined and educated and in the future also teacher will play an important role in the career building of a student.Top Resume Making Companies in India

  9. This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. This is very nice one and gives indepth information. Thanks for this nice article. ทางเข้า sbobet

  10. Good to become visiting your weblog again, it has been months for me. Nicely this article that i've been waited for so long. I will need this post to total my assignment in the college, and it has exact same topic together with your write-up. Thanks, good share. KIU Community News


  12. I want to say thanks for beautiful blog sharing with us. Your blog really great resource to update my knowledge.
    Happy Fathers Day

  13. The run of the mill wonders and qualities related with globalization incorporate development of worldwide systems administration (for example web, overall e-correspondence, capstone paper writing service

  14. As a strategy for ensuring that no child is denied the opportunity of acquiring formal education, not sending a child to school is a criminal offence in some parts of the world, especially in the West.

  15. For managerial accounting help for college students we have developed a website that can help you out. We have a pool of writers working day and night to provide the right answers for your homework.

  16. I was reading some of your content on this website and I conceive this internet site is really informative ! Keep on putting up. club essay

  17. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, hsc update routine 2020

  18. One important part of an essay is its title. One should choose it very carefully. It helps in driving attention of readers. essay help

  19. Thanks a lot for the blog article. Really looking forward to read more. Much here

  20. To become the best in the industry, you should take into consideration three things: writers, articles, and clients. Essay Writing Service

  21. The democratic will seek a type of education whose Best Assignment Help UK purpose is to build responsible, thinking, public-spirited citizenship in all people.

  22. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing blog that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. Being Distant In A Relationship

  23. Thanks for sharing the post.. parents are worlds best person in each lives of individual..they need or must succeed to sustain needs of the family. courses

  24. I can disclose to you direct that none of this give and take between a custom curriculum and normal education has been simple. Graduate School

  25. This was a really great contest and hopefully I can attend the next one. It was alot of fun and I really enjoyed myself.. ispellings

  26. Acknowledges for penmanship such a worthy column, I stumbled beside your blog besides predict a handful advise. I want your tone of manuscript... coursehero free

  27. Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. Big thanks for the useful info. Sandy Hook Parent

  28. . Live debates on current issues, event planners for concerts, gigs, and other types of entertainment or just neighborhood news are all that a weekly local paper can boast. the hindu newspaper today pdf

  29. Quick forward a couple of more years to now and there is another and fascinating turn influencing Special Education called full incorporation. Presently consideration is definitely not another thing to our schools. SEO no cure no pay

  30. welcome to voice of knowledge is a channel where you can find lots of information related to islam, quran & science, history, docomentry unsolved mysteries, urdu information, interesting facts, information, technology and urdu stories. Best for Military Families

  31. I can reveal to you direct that none of this give and take between a specialized curriculum and ordinary education has been simple. Nor do I see this pushing and pulling turning out to be simple at any point in the near future. jee coaching near me

  32. Besides, I have been a standard ordinary education educator who instructed normal education consideration classes attempting to sort out some way to best work with some new custom curriculum instructor in my group and their custom curriculum understudies also.

  33. I have likewise been on the custom curriculum side attempting to get normal education educators to work all the more successfully with my custom curriculum understudies through changing their guidance and materials and having somewhat more tolerance and compassion. narrative essay topics


  34. Very nice article. I enjoyed reading your post. very nice share. I want to twit this to my followers. Thanks

    รับทำ seo
    wm casino
    poker online

  35. Such a very useful blog. Very Interesting to read this blog. I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome blog. Great work.
    kardinal stick

  36. That is the reason instructor quality is as yet a matter of concern, even, in nations where understudies reliably acquire high scores in worldwide tests, like Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In such nations, educator education of prime significance in view of the potential it needs to cause positive understudies' accomplishments. research paper writing rules

  37. Watch movies online, watch new movies, series Netflix HD 4K หนังฝรั่ง, watch free movies on your mobile phone, Tablet, watch movies on the web.

    SEE4K Watch movies, watch movies, free series, load without interruption, sharp images in HD FullHD 4k, ดูหนังชนโรง all matters, all tastes, see anywhere, anytime, on mobile phones, tablets, computers.

    GangManga read manga, read manga, read manga online for free, fast loading, clear images in HD quality, อ่านมังงะ all titles, anywhere, anytime, on mobile, tablet, computer.

    Watch live football ดูบอลออนไลน์, watch football online, link to watch live football, watch football for free.

  38. Moreover, I have been a standard normal education instructor who trained customary education incorporation classes attempting to sort out some way to best work with some new specialized curriculum educator in my group and their custom curriculum understudies too. Science Hindi

  39. SamudraBet Situs Judi Online Terbaik, Terpercaya dan Terbesar di Indonesia. Menyediakan permainan :

    Judi bola terbaik

    Judi slot online terpercaya

    Poker online terbaru

    Live casino online

    Judi sabung ayam

  40. There are diverse heated water frameworks which you can utilize. The sun powered high temp water framework might be expensive toward the start however as you keep utilizing the framework, you will actually want to recuperate your underlying expense.Gas Fitter

  41. The models you need to utilize while picking between handymen around your space is to break down their administrations. When taking a gander at the rundown of handymen, first guarantee that they really offer crisis administrations.Gas Fitter Castle Hills

  42. เราคือผู้นำด้านเกมพนันออนไลน์ Major168 เราคือผู้ให้บริการ คาสิโนออนไลน์ ที่ได้รับรองว่าดีที่สุดในประเทศไทย มีค่ายเกมส์ให้เล่นมากมาย Sagaming, Sexy bacarat, Dreamgame, Ebet, Wm casino, Vivo gaming ไม่ผ่านเอเย่นต์ ระบบปลอดภัยมีทีมงานดูแลตลอด 24ชม.

    SAGAME88 แหล่งรวมเกมส์พนันออนไลน์ คาสิโนสด บาคาร่า กำถั่ว คาสิโนออนไลน์ ไฮโล รูเล็ต รับเครดิตฟรีเล่นได้ทุกเกมส์ โบนัสสมาชิกใหม่เพียบ พร้อมระบบฝากถอนออโต้ 10วิ เรามีทุกค่ายเกมส์ให้คุณเลือกเดิมพัน SA Game Sexy bacarat Dreamgame WM Casino VIVO Gaming Ebet เล่นได้ทุกเกมส์

    Our website ufabet provides betting services in the system of Auto Deposit-Withdrawal. Our members are not only in Thailand. Online football betting UEFA Bet market And this makes a guarantee that Ufabet168 is another reliable football betting website

    ufa through the website UFABET1688 a web gambling online , one that integrated all the bets from online casinos , online casino , online , and also have a game a lot more to be chosen to play such games.

  43. National University is published the nu honours 4th year exam result 2021 on online. Students now can check the result from as well as

  44. I have likewise been on the specialized curriculum side attempting to get standard education instructors to work all the more successfully with my custom curriculum understudies through altering their guidance and materials and having somewhat more tolerance and compassion. boarding schools

  45. Go on the web and check the audits of handymen in your space. On the off chance that you look for a handyman in your city on one of the mainstream web crawlers, like Google or Yahoo, you will discover the web search tools "Nearby Listing" of handymen geologically close to you, connections to their site, and client audits of their work. Ashfield Plumbing

  46. Wow, What an Outstanding post. I found this too much informatics. It is what I was seeking for. I would like to recommend you that please keep sharing such type of info.If possible, Thanks. BizOp


  47. Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Extremely useful info particularly the ultimate section 🙂 I take care of such information a lot. I was seeking this certain information for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.
    the immortals of meluha pdf, BOOKS PDF DOWNLOAD

  48. I’ve been searching for some decent stuff on the subject and haven't had any luck up until this point, You just got a new biggest fan!.. 릴게임

  49. Merely a smiling visitant here to share the love (:, btw outstanding style. 토토커뮤니티

  50. Hi there! Nice stuff, do keep me posted when you post again something like this! 안전놀이터

  51. I have additionally been on the custom curriculum side attempting to get normal education educators to work all the more viably with my specialized curriculum understudies through adjusting their guidance and materials and having somewhat more persistence and compassion. top hyderabad pre school


  52. Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Extremely useful info particularly the ultimate section 🙂 I take care of such information a lot. I was seeking this certain information for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.
    Achievements of India in the field of Science and Technology Essay , The Beautiful Sky Book review

  53. Thank you for taking the time to publish this information very useful! 대전1인샵

  54. This comment has been removed by the author.

  55. and the educational practices and administrations of education and specialized curriculum by the human instructors who convey those administrations on the two sides of the isle, similar to me. graphic designing course in karachi

  56. Cool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us. test bank nursing

  57. Thanks so much for this information. I have to let you know I concur on several of the points you make here and others may require some further review, but I can see your viewpoint. visit this page

  58. Where should I play games Poker ? We recommend POKERDEE
    นักโป๊กเกอร์มือใหม่ ถ้าเราอยากจะเรียนรู้การเล่นโป๊กเกอร์ให้เก่งนั้น เราก็ต้องอาศัยเวลาและความอดทนกับมันพอสมควรครับ ในช่วงแรก ๆ

  59. This is actually the kind of information I have been trying to find. Thank you for writing this information. umrah packages

  60. There has been a great deal of compromising or possibly I should say pulling and pushing with regards to educational approach, and the educational practices and administrations of education and specialized curriculum by the human teachers who convey those administrations on the two sides of the isle, similar to me.
    Reddit best cryptocurrency


Download app for android

Download app for android


Popular Posts


Blogger Tips and TricksLatest Tips For BloggersBlogger Tricks
SCC Education © 2017. Powered by Blogger.

Total Pageviews