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Saturday, 27 June 2015

Diversity in Living Organisms

Diversity in Living Organisms,Classification of living beings ,

1. There are more than a million kinds of living things exhibiting an infinite variety in form, structure and living places.

2. Classification puts things in order.

3. The use of important distinguishing features forms the basis of classification.

4. The process of grouping similar things into groups and categories on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities is called classification.

5. The system of classification was devised by Carolus Linnaeus.

6. The naming of organisms is called nomenclature.

7. The science of classification is called Taxonomy.

8. Carolus Linnaeus is called the father of taxonomy.

9. Species is a group of organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.

10. Genus is a group of similar and closely related species.

11. Binomial name has two parts — genus and species.

12. The names given to living organisms following the binomial system are called 
scientific names.

13. The genus name begins with a capital letter, the species name begins with a small letter.

14. R.H. Whittaker was the first one to propose a five-kingdom classification in 1969.

15. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia are included in five–kingdom classification.

16. Kingdom Plantae is divided into two s u b k i n g d o m s — C r y p t o g a m a e and

17. The simplest plants belong to the division Thallophyta.

18. Lichen is a symbiotic association of algae and fungi.

19. Plants belonging to bryophyta are called amphibians of the plant kingdom.

20. Bacteria are often called “fission plants” as they multiply by binary fission.

21. Biologists have identified, named, classified and described more than a million types of animals inhabiting the earth.

22. Animals differ in their structure ranging from single celled to multi cellular animal.

23. All animals are eukaryotic organisms.

24. Most animals have a high level of tissue differentiation.

25. Animal nutrition is heterotrophic.

26. Animal cells lack cell wall.

27. Animals possess the power of locomotion.

28. Two main criteria, used to classify animals are :
(i) presence or absence of vertebral column.
(ii) cellular organisation.

29. The first group of animals is invertebrates animals without backbone.

30. The second group of animals is vertebrates — animals having backbone or vertebral column.

31. Based on the cellular organisation, animals can be divided into — protozoa and metazoa.

32. Protozoa represent the one-celled animals/ unicellular animals, e.g., Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Trypanosoma.

33. Metazoa represents the many-celled animals/ multi cellular animals, e.g., Hydra, earthworm, corals, flatworms, insects, frogs, etc.

34. The phyla, in order of their increasing complexity beginning from the simple singlecelled form to complex form are like these — protozoa, porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, arthropoda, mollusca, chinodermata, hemichordata and chordata.

35. Symmetrical body shape means the parts of an animal body are arranged in such a way that it can be cut into two similar halves by one or more planes.

36. Germ layers are the primary layers of cells which differentiate in the animal embryo.

37. Phylum protozoa includes minute, microscopic,eukaryotic organisms, e.g., Amoeba, Euglena, Trypanosoma.

 38. Phylum porifera includes mostly sessile or stationary sea animals, having porous body e.g. Sycon, Leucosolenia, etc.

39. Phylum coelenterata includes radially symmetri- cal, multicellular, aquatic animals, e.g., Hydra, Obelia,

40. Phylum platyhelminthes includes bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, mostly parasitic animals. e.g., liver fluke, blood fluke,tapeworm.

41. Phylum nematoda includes mostly parasitic animals having narrow, elongated, cylindrical unsegmented body. e.g. roundworm, pinworm, filarial worm, etc.

42. Phylum annelida includes free living coelomic animals having metameric segmentation, e.g.,earthworm, sea-mouse, etc.

43. Phylum arthropoda are the largest group of animals and its main feature is jointed legs and body is divided into three regions— head, thorax and abdomen. e.g., prawn, crab, housefly, mosquito, etc.

44. Phylum mollusca includes mainly aquatic animals having soft, unsegmented body. e.g.,snail, mussel,cuttlefish.

45. Phylum echinodermata includes star-shaped,spherical or elongated exclusively marine animals, e.g., starfish, brittle star, sea cucumber,etc.

46. Phylum hemichordata possess characters of both vertebrates and invertebrates, e.g., tongue worm, Rhabdopleura.

47. Phylum chordatathe animals with vertebral column like horse, man etc.

I. Very Short Answer Questions (1 Mark)

1. (a) A flowering plant whose embryo possesses single cotyledon (Give scientific term).

1. Meena and Hari observed an animal in their garden. Hari called it an insect while Meena said it was an earthworm. Name the characteristic which confirms that it is an insect.

2. What is the mode of nutrition in fungi?

3. What are the divisions of living organisms?

4. What is the basis of classification of plants?

5. What is Systema Naturae?

6. What is a scientific name?

7. What are the divisions of cryptogamae?

8. What are the examples of thallophyta?

9. What are the parts of a scientific name?

10. Write the scientific names of pea and peacock?

11. What are amphibians of the plant kingdom?

12. According to the two-kingdom classification, what are the main divisions of animals?

13. What is the basis of classification of animals?

14. What are invertebrates?

15. Which animal shows bilateral symmetry?

16. What type of body symmetry is shown by Hydra?

17. What is pseudocoel?

18. In which phyla, true body cavities are present?
(b) A unicellular, eukaryotic aquatic organism (Name the kingdom). 

1. Which organisms are called primitive? How are they different from the advanced organisms ?
2. What are the four main characteristics of chordates? 

3. (a) Give one characteristic difference between primitive and advanced organisms
(b) Name the phylum to which the following are included. 
i) Spider (ii) Cockroach (iii) Prawn (iv) Housefly

4. (i) Write one main characteristic feature that differentiates gymnosperms from angiosperms.
(ii) Give one example of each of a gymnosperm and an angiosperm.

5. (i) Identify the class of animals having the following characteristic features.
(a) The warm blooded animals that lay eggs and have four chambered heart and a covering of feathers.
(b) The cold blooded animals having scales and they breathe through lungs.
(ii) Give one example of an animal belonging to each of these classes. 

6. In the hierarchy of classification, which grouping will have the smallest number of organisms with maximum characteristics in common and which will have the largest number of organisms?

7. Characteristics of some organisms are given. Identify their group and give one example of each.
(a) Single celled, eukaryotic and photosynthetic (b) The body is divided into segments, may be unisexual or hermaphrodite.

8. (a) List two features which differentiate chordates from non-chordates.
(b) In which phylum will you place the organisms which have
(i) calcareous spines on their body?
(ii) the presence of holes or pores all over the body? 

9. How do the saprophytes get their food? Give two examples of a saprophyte. 

10. List the major divisions in kingdom plantae. Write the characteristic features of any one of them. 

11. Explain Binomial Nomenclature? Name the scientist who has given it. Write its advantage ? 

12. List the conventions used for writing a scientific name. What is the importance of scientific names? 

13. (a) How many chambers do the heart of fish,amphibians and mammals have?
(b) Name the classes of vertebrates which lay eggs with shells.

14. Why bryophytes are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom? 

15. Some reptiles live in water and yet lay eggs with tough covering unlike the amphibians. Why?

16. How are fungi (i) similar and (ii) dissimilar to plants? 

17. How do thallophytes and pteridophytes differ from each other? Write two differences. 

18. (a) Name the phylum to which the following are included spider, cockroach, prawn, house fly.
(b) What is biodiversity? 

19. (a) List any three important features of vertebrates.
(b) Name one reptile. 

20. Write two peculiar characters of sponges? 

21. Why are bats not placed in birds (Two Points)?

22. (a) What are saprophytes? 
(b) Name the kingdom to which they belong.
(c) What is the cell wall of fungi made up of?

23. (a) Identify the class of following organism having following features :
(i) Slimy skin and three chambered heart.
(ii) Covering of feather and four chambered heart.
(b) List two important characteristics of phylum Nematode. 

24. What is notochord? Mention its function. 

25. Write the main features of Fungus plants.

26. Enlist four main features of organisms placed in protista.

27. Give four main features of phylum coelenterata.

28. What is binomial nomenclature? Who introduced it? 

29. (a) What are the two adaptive features of birds ?
(b) What is the scientific name of ostrich?

30. Why is there a need for classification and systematic naming of living organisms? 

31. How do reptiles differ from amphibians? 

32. (a) Define cryptograms?
(b) Name the division of plant kingdom having amphibian plants.

33. Bats can fly still they are placed in mammal. Why?

34. Give reasons for each of the following.
(a) "Blue-green algae is placed in Monera and not in plantae"
(b) "Bryophytes and Pteridophytes grow in moist and shady places".

35. (a) Write any two important features that are present in all chordates. 
(b) Mention one difference between triploblastic and diploblastic animals.

36. List the four conventions that are followed while writing the scientific names of an organism?

37. Give two differences between bony fish and cartilaginous fish. Give one example of each.

38. (a) Give a difference between lizards and snakes. 
(b) Name the type of nutrition in fungi.

39. Thallophyta, bryophyta and pteridophyta are classified as cryptogamae whereas gymnosperms and angiosperms are classified as phanerogamae, why?

40. How can we say that sea horse is a fish while jelly fish is not a fish but a coelenterate? 

41. (i) Which group of plants is known as 'flowering plants'?
(ii) On the basis of seed how a maize plant is different from a pea plant?

42. Give any two reasons why mosses are found in moist and humid places.

45. (a) State two characteristic features of nematode.
(b) Identify the phylum with the help of following features :
(i) Spiny - Skinned, radial symmetrical and have tube feet.
(ii) Triploblastic, worm - like, having segmented body. 

46. Write conventions followed while writing the scientific names?

47. Give reasons for the following :
(a) Blue green algae are classified with bacteria and placed in kingdom Monera (b) Bryophytes are called amphibians of plant kingdom. 

48. Who proposed the five kingdom classification? What is the basis of this classification? [2011 (T-II )]

50. Give one example of each :
(a) Reptile which has a four chambered heart.
(b) Egg - laying mammal.
(c) Parasitic Platyhelminthes
(d) Division among plants which has the simplest organisms.

51. Identify the phylum for the following characteristics given :
(a) Organisms with joint appendages.
(b) Organisms are generally flatworms
(c) Body is segmented
(d) Skin of organisms is full of spikes

52. Write any two characteristics of class mammalia. Name one egg laying mammal. 

1. Answer the following questions :
(i) Who is known as the ‘Father of Taxonomy’?
(ii) What is meant by nomenclature?
2. Write the contribution of Haeckel and Whittaker in classification.
3. Name the group of plants with the following characters :
(a) Plants with seeds
(b) Plants without roots, stem, leaves or flowers
(c) Plants having seeds with two cotyledons
(d) Plants visible with naked eye but having no chlorophyll
4. You are provided with the seeds of gram, wheat, rice and pumpkin. Classify them whether they are monocot or dicot.
5. Distinguish between bryophyta and pteridophyta.
6. What are vascular cryptogams?
7. Write any four differences between dicotyledons and monocotyledons.
8. Name the phylum to which each of the following animals belong:
Seahorse, Silverfish, Jellyfish, Cuttlefish.
9. Give two characters of bryophytes.
10. How is classification and evolution interrelated with each other?
11(i) Draw a neat diagram of Hydra.
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