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Saturday, 8 October 2016

Electric Force, fundamental forces

         Electric Force
One of the four fundamental forces
Responsible for much of our technology
Governs chemistry which deals with interactions of the outer electrons between atoms or groups of atoms


Interesting topic because it also involves the concept of magnetism
We are all familiar with static electricity
When the humidity is low, we can walk across a carpet wearing leather-soled shoes and give someone a big awakening
What is happening here?
Transferring some entity into our fingertips
We now know that elementary particles like the electron and proton have a quality known as charge.
Objects that accumulate charge have either gained or lost electrons

These objects experience large forces as a result of being “charged'"
There are two kinds of charges which we have called positive and negative
We have defined the charge of the electron to be negative and the charge of the proton to be positive
What it is interesting is that “Like charges repel and unlike charges attract!”
Earlier we studied some conservation laws that turned out to be very important
The conservation of energy, linear momentum and angular momentum have major consequences for the way the world behaves

Electric charge is also a conserved quantity and for every positive charge there seems to be a corresponding negative charge

Conservation of Charge
In any process, the net amount of electric charge produced is zero!
•This means that if we add up all the positive charges and all the negative charges moving around in a process, the total charge will sum to zero
•So we can neither create nor destroy charge
Charged objects are composed of atoms, a few of which have either gained or lost an electron
Those special atoms are called ions
On a macroscopic level, ions eventually gain or lose an electron from contact with something else and return to neutral status
Electric Force,electricity,free notes,chemistry notes for 12,free notes,
•Materials such as metals conduct electricity

•This means that charges can move freely through 
the material (electrons do the moving)

•Other materials, such as wood or glass do not 
conduct electricity

•Electrons cannot move freely in these materials
Materials such as metals conduct electricity
This means that charges can move freely through 
the material (electrons do the moving)
Other materials, such as wood or glass do not 
conduct electricity
Electrons cannot move freely in these materials
A few materials fall somewhere between these two 
extremes and are called semiconductors
Examples are silicon and germanium
The key is whether or not the electrons in the
material are tightly bound to individual atoms

 To read more about this topic click here.
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