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Saturday, 8 October 2016

Properties of group 13 elements

Session Objectives
1.Physical properties of group  13 elements
2.Halides of group 13 elements
3.Hydrides of group 13 elements
4.Oxides of group 13 elements
5.Extraction of aluminum
6.Compounds and uses of aluminum

7.Physical properties of group  14 elements

Elements of group 13

B-Boron = [He]2s22p1
Al-Aluminium = [Ne]3s23p1
Ga-Gallium = [Ar]3d104s24p1
In-Indium = [Kr]4d105s25p1
Tl-Thallium = [Xe]4f145d106s26p1

Abundance and Occurrence of group 13 elements
Aluminium is the most abundant metal known and third most abundant element by mass in the earth’s crust.

Boron is a rare element and occurs as concentrated deposits of Borax,
Kernite .

Gallium is twice as abundant but indium and thallium are less common.
Atomic and ionic radii
In case of Ga, In and Tl, there are 10-d electrons in the penultimate shell causing weaker screening of nuclear charge and thus the increase in size is not very large.
 Ionisation Energy
The ionisation energy values do not decrease smoothly down the group. The decrease from B to Al is the usual trend on descending the group associated with increased size.The poor shielding by d-electrons affect the value for latter elements.

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