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Wednesday, 2 March 2016

Carboxylic acids and their derivatives

Carboxylic acids and their derivatives
Alcohols
homologous series containing the OH hydroxyl group.
all names end in ol eg methanol, ethanol etc.
isomers are possible for alcohols containing 3 or more carbons.
label position of OH group so that it has the lowest number
possible.
polyhydric alcohols contain more than one OH group eg propane-
1,2,3,triol
OH groups attached to benzene rings are called phenols.
Physical properties of alcohols
•Molecules are polar, in the O-H bond, O is d- and H is d+
•Molecules have attractive forces between the molecules called hydrogen bonds, not as strong as covalent bonds.
Higher boiling point than corresponding alkanes.
Hydrogen bonds form between alcohol and water molecules therefore they are miscible / soluble.
Long chain alcohols are less soluble.
Ethers
•General formula R-O-R’
O-R’ alkoxy group substituted for H eg
CH3-CH2-CH2-O-CH3 methoxypropane
Longer hydrocarbon chain is parent alkane for naming.
Physical properties of ethers
•Molecules only slightly polar.
•No hydrogen on the oxygen atoms to form hydrogen bonds – only weak forces of attraction between molecules.
•Boiling points similar to corresponding alkane.
•Lower ethers, very volatile, highly flammable.
•Only slightly soluble in water, mix well with other non-polar solvents eg alkanes. (Like dissolves like).
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives,
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Carboxylic acids and their derivatives,


Chemistry for class 12 ...........





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