## History of mathematics

The area of study

•The
area of study known as the history of

mathematics is an investigation into the

standard mathematical methods and notation of the past.

•Greek and Hellenistic mathematics is generally considered
to be one of the most important for greatly expanding both the method and the
subject matter of mathematics.

Earliest known mathematics

•The
earliest known mathematics in ancient India dates from 3000-2600
BC in the Indus Valley
Civilization of North India and Pakistan

•
•They
used the decimal system, ratios, angles, π, and
used a base 8
numeral system

•
•The Indus
script has not yet been
deciphered

__Mesopotamia__

•Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the people of Mesopotamia until the beginning of
the Hellenistic
period.

•
•The earliest
evidence of written mathematics
dates back to the ancient Sumerians.

•Babylonian
mathematics were written using a sexagesimal (base-60)n numeral system.

Egypt

•Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in the Egyptian
language.

•
•The
oldest mathematical text discovered so far is the Moscow
papyrus, which is an Egyptian
Middle Kingdom papyrus
dated c. 2000—1800 BC.

•The Rhind
papyrus (c. 1650 BC) is another
major Egyptian mathematical text, an instruction manual in arithmetic and
geometry.

•
•Finally,
the Berlin
papyrus (c. 1300 BC) shows that
ancient Egyptians could solve a second-order algebraic equation.

Women in Egypt?

•Hypatia was
the daughter of Theon of Alexandria who was a teacher of mathematics with the
Museum of Alexandria in Egypt.

•
•Hypatia
corresponded with and hosted
scholars from others cities.

•Christian
bishop, Cyril, a future saint
probably objected to Hypatia on a number of counts

•Vedic
mathematics began in the early Iron Age, with the Shatapatha
Brahmana (c. 9th century BC)

•Sulba Sutras (c. 800-500 BC) were geometry texts that used irrational numbers and prime numbers

•Developed
Pythagorean
triples algebraically and
gave a statement and numerical proof of the Pythagorean theorem.

•They
were the first to develop transfinite numbers, set
theory, logarithms, fundamental laws
of indices, cubic equations, quadratic equations, sequences
and progressions, permutations and combinations, squaring and
extracting
square roots,
and finite and infinite powers.

Greek and Hellenistic mathematics

(c. 550 BC—AD 300)

(c. 550 BC—AD 300)

•Greek
mathematics refers to mathematics written in Greek between about 600 BCE and 450 CE.

•Greek
mathematics is thought to have begun with Thales (c. 624—c.546 BC) and Pythagoras

•The Pythagoreans discovered the
existence of irrational numbers.

•Euclid (c.
300 BC) is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today,
definition, axiom, theorem, proof.

•Some
say the greatest of Greek mathematicians, if not of all time, was Arhimedes (c.287—212 BC) of Syracuse

•Death
of Archimedes anecdote

•Women
were
able to contribute to the
"search for wisdom" during the period between 800 BC and 500 BC in
Greece.

•Greek
women received their education either
in the home or from well educated experts.

•Spartan
girls received a formal education more similar to the training boys received
(Roice).

Who was Theano

**•Theano was the most famous woman of the Pythagoreans.**

**•She wrote on the "number theory" and explained it as a principle to create order that helped to distinguish one thing from another.**

**•Theano also wrote about the ethics a woman should adopt in daily life.**