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Thursday, 15 October 2015

RESPIRATION IN PLANTS notes

                                                     RESPIRATION IN PLANTS
RESPIRATION IN PLANTS
RESPIRATION IN PLANTS


Aerobic respiration : Complete oxidation of organic food in presence of oxygen thereby producing CO2, water and energy.
Anaerobic respiration : Incomplete breakdown of organic food to liberate
energy in the absence of oxygen.
ATP Synthetase : An enzyme complex that catalyses synthesis of ATP during
oxidative phospho-relation.
Biological oxidation : Oxidation in a series of reaction inside a cell.
Cytochromes : A group of iron containing compounds of electron transport
system present in inner wall of mitochondria.
Dehydrogenase : Enzyme that catalyses removal of H atom from the substrate.
Electron acceptor : Organic compound which recieve electrons produced during oxidation-reduction reactions.
Electron transport : Movement of electron from substrate to oxygen  through respiratory chain during respiration.
Fermentation : Breakdown of organic substance that takes place in certain
microbe like yeast under anaerobic condition with the production of CO2 and
ethanol.
Glycosis : Enzymatic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid that occurs in the cytoplasm.
Oxidative phosphorylation : Process of formation of ATP from ADP and Pi using the energy from proton gradient.
Respiration : Biochemical oxidation food to release energy.
Respiratory Quotient : The ratio of the volume of CO2 produced to the volume of oxygen consumed.
Proton gradient : Difference in proton concentration across the tissue membrane.
Mitochondrial matrix : The ground material of mitochondria in which pyruvic acid undergoes aerobic oxidation through Kreb’s cycle.
                                                                         Abbreviations
ATP − Adenosine tri phosphate
ADP − Adenosine di phosphate
NAD − Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide
NADP − Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide Phosphate
NADH − Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide
PGA − Phosphoglyceric acid
PGAL − Phospho glyceraldehyde
FAD − Flavin adenine dinucleotide
ETS − Electron transport system
ETC − Electron transport chain
TCA − Tricarboxylic acid
OAA − Oxalo acetic acid
FMN − Flavin mono nucleotide
PPP − Pentose phosphate pathway
                                          AEROBIC RESPIRATION
The overall mechanism of aerobic respiration can be studied under the
following steps :
(A) Glycolysis (EMP pathway)
(B) Oxidative Decarboxylation
(C) Kreb’s cycle (TCA-cycle)
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation
Very Short Answer Questions (1 mark each)
1. Name the molecule which is terminal acceptor of electron.
2. How many ATP molecules are produced from a molecule of glucose on it
complet oxidation in eukaryotes ?
3. Where does ETC found in eukaryotic cell ?
4. Name the enzyme which convert sugar into glucose and fructose.
5. How many molecules of ATP are produced by the oxidation of one molecule
of FADH2 ?
6. Why do the person with sufficient white fibres get fatigued in a short period ?
7. Write the name of end product of glycolysis.
8. Name the first product formed in Kerb's cycle.
Short Answer Questions-II (2 marks each)
9. Differentiate between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
10. Mention two steps of glycolysis in which ATP is utilised.
11. Why does anaerobic respiration produces less energy than aerobic respiration?
12. Define Respiratory Quotient. What is its value for fat and protein ?
13. Distinguish between glycolysis and fermentation.
14. What are respiratory substrates ? Name the most common respiratory substrate.
Short Answer Questions-I (3 marks each)
15. Give the schematic representation of an overall view of TCA cycle.
16. Where does electron transport system oparative in mitochondria ? Explain
the system giving the role of oxygen ?
17. Give a brief account of ATP molecules produced in aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.
18. Discuss The respiratory pathway is an amphibolic pathway.
19. What is glycolysis ? Where does glycolysis takes place in a cell ? Give
schematic representation of glycolysis.
ANSWERS
Very Short Answers (1 marks)
1. Oxygen.
2. 36 ATP.
3. Mitochondrial membrane.
4. Invertase.
5. 2 ATP molecules.
6. due to formation of Lactic acid.
7. Pyruvic acid.
8. Citric acid.




Read more topics......
vitamins fat-soluble-vitamins water
the-digestive-system
structure-of-dna
blood-wonder-liquid-part-2
respiration-in-plants
breathing-and-exchange-of-gases
photosynthesis-in-higher-plants
cell-cycle-and-cell-division
transport-in-plants
anatomy-of-flowering-plants
morphology-of-flowering-plants
biomolecules
reproduction-in-organisms






circulatory-system
introduction-of-biochemistry
glycolysis
reproduction
the-male-reproductive-system
human-health-and-diseases
reproductive-health
evolution

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